Australia has signed a code of conduct to promise not to spy on Indonesia's elected officials in a bid to heal seeping wounds opened by NSA leaks.

In November 2013, documents leaked by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden revealed Australia had spied on the mobile phone of then-Indonesian-leader Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY), his wife and political confidants.

Prime Minister Tony Abbott, who was not in power when the spying occurred, initially refused to comment on the allegations and said Australia should not "be expected to detail what [it] does to protect the country".

The Joint Understanding of a Code of Conduct, a two-point addendum to the existing 2006 Lombok Treaty, came nine months after SBY in response called the spying a "betrayal", and demanded a pledge from Australia to end the practice. He then cut cooperation in intelligence, military operations and combating of people-smuggling.

1. The Parties will not use any of their intelligence, including surveillance capacities, or other sources, in ways that would harm the interests of the Parties.2. The Parties will promote intelligence cooperation between relevant institutions and agencies in accordance with their respective national laws and regulations.

The document did not specifically rule out spying between the two countries but stated that such intelligence would not "harm the interests of" either country, and a second more amorphous point that intelligence cooperation would be promoted in a potential bid to make relationships between spies cozier.
Australia's foreign minister Julie Bishop signed the document during a United Nations meeting in Bali and said the agreement provided the basis to "enhance cooperation between Australian and Indonesian agencies".

Indonesian Foreign minister Marty Natalegawa said the document was "very inclusive and very exhaustive" and was centred on trust and good intentions.

But cynics could see the document as an easy and belated win for Australia which both escaped with less than a bloody nose and shored up its hardened immigration stance by towing some nine refugee boats back to Indonesia during the nine-month diplomatic fallout.




For those of you system admins and Linux aficionados who spend a great deal of your time in front of Linux screen, do you know that ambient noise from online/local radio station can actually be a productivity booster? Believe or not, it is known that moderate level of ambient sound such as music or chatter can actually fuel your creativity at your workplace. If you like the idea of working with music on, maybe this tutorial is useful to you, as I am going to show you how to listen to Pandora online radio from the command line.
As you already know, Pandora is one of the most well-known Internet radio services, streaming tons of different genres of music for free, with its powerful music recommendation engine. While Pandora can be accessed in different ways such as via web browser, desktop clients or mobile apps, the open-source community has come up with yet another way to access Pandora: Linux command-line.
pianobar is an open-source CLI music player for Pandora Internet radio. It comes with a simple terminal interface for playing and managing music stations. Other features include song rating, upcoming song list, song history, custom keybindings, remote control, etc. For those listeners who live in the region where Pandora is not available (i.e., outside US, Australia and New Zealand), pianobar also comes with proxy support.

Install Pianobar on Linux

On Debian and other Debian-derivatives such as Ubuntu or Linux Mint, pianobar comes as a pre-built package, so installation is as easy as typing:
$ sudo apt-get install pianobar
On Fedora, pianobar is not available in base repositories. So you need to build it from the source. The whole installation process is a bit involved, but the following instructions will do it. The instructions were tested on fresh Fedora 20.
First, compile and install FFmpeg from the source using this guide.
Next, enable RPM Fusion repo, and install other prerequisites:
$ sudo yum install wget gcc-c++ pkgconfig gnutls-devel json-c-devel libgcrypt-devel make libao-devel faad2-devel libmad-devel libao faad2-libs
Compile and install pianobar:
$ wget http://6xq.net/projects/pianobar/pianobar-2014.06.08.tar.bz2
$ tar xvfvj pianobar-2014.06.08.tar.bz2
$ cd pianobar-2014.06.08
$ PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/usr/local/lib/pkgconfig:$PKG_CONFIG_PATH make
$ sudo make install
Finally, to allow pianobar to load shared FFmpeg libraries installed in /usr/local/lib, add the following line in/etc/ld.so.conf:
/usr/local/lib
and reload all shared libraries:
$ sudo ldconfig
That's it.

Listen to Pandora from the Command Line

The basic usage of pianobar is as simple as typing the command:
$ pianobar
You will be asked to log in to Pandora, and choose a station from your personalized station list. Once you pick a station, music streaming will start automatically.
Pressing '?' key during streaming will show you a list of available command keys. Some of them are:
  • s: change to a different station.
  • u: view a list of upcoming songs.
  • h: view plaback history.
  • n: go to the next song.
  • b: bookmark a song or an artist.
  • ( or ): decrease or increase music volume.
  • S: pause streaming.
  • P: resume streaming.
  • v: create a new station from song or artist.
  • + or -: thumb up or down a song.
  • a: add music to a station.
  • q: quit pianobar.

Configure Pianobar for Automatic Setup

You can define various default settings of pianobar in a separate configuration file. For example, you can put your Pandora login information in the configuration file, so you don't have to type it manually. Here is how to create a sample configuration file.
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/pianobar
$ vi ~/.config/pianobar/config
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# Example pianobar configuration file
 
# Pandora login info
user = your@email_address
password = plaintext_password
 
# Users who cannot access Pandora in their region can set a proxy.
control_proxy = http://user:password@host:port/
 
# Initial volume in dB: between -30 and +5
volume = 0
 
# Audio quality: high, medium or low
audio_quality = high
For full configuration options, refer to its man page.
$ man pianobar

Remote Control Pianobar

Another excellent feature of pianobar is remote control support. You can send a command to a running instance of pianobar via a named pipe (FIFO). Here is how to remote control pianobar.
First create a FIFO in ~/.config/pianobar:
$ mkfifo ~/.config/pianobar/ctl
Then launch pianobar.
Now you can send any single-character command key to pianobar by using echo command. For example, to go to the next song:
$ echo -n 'n' > ~/.config/pianobar/ctl
You can easily extend this setup to a remote machine. When pianobar is running on host X, you can remote control pianobar from another host Y over SSH as follows.
On host Y, run:
$ ssh user@host_X "echo -n 'n' > ~/.config/pianobar/ctl"
Of course, you want to enable key authentication for SSH login to host X, so that you don't have to type an SSH password.
This remote control feature can come in handy when you want to set up a remote controllable Internet radio player on Raspberry Pi.



A lot more people are taking up the entrepreneurial route these days. To the uninitiated it looks very easy; you are your own boss and can do whatever you wish. But someone who has already taken the plunge knows that being an entrepreneur is a lot tougher – whether working as a freelancer or the founder of a start- up, you will almost always find yourself donning several hats. While managing everything is relatively easy when you are small, it can become a daunting task to manage things when you start growing rapidly. Multitasking becomes a real skill as you negotiate with clients, send proposals and work on current assignments. With all this chaos, you certainly don’t want to miss out on payments – after all, that’s what you’re working for!
Today we introduce jBilling, which can help you manage the most important aspect of your business – the income. This is not the typical invoice management kind of tool, rather a full-fledged platform with several innovative features. jBilling helps you manage invoices, track payments, bill your customers and more with little effort on your behalf – just what you want when juggling responsibilities.
In this tutorial we will first cover the necessary steps to install and set up jBilling before having a closer look at the various features that can help you manage your business better. We have used the latest stable community edition of jBilling, version 3.1.0, for demo purposes in this article.

The main menu bar gives you access to all the pages you'll use most frequently
The main menu bar gives you access to all the pages you’ll use most frequently

Step-by-step

Step 01 Installation
jBilling is integrated with the web server out of the box, which helps make the installation process straightforward. Just unzip the downloaded zip file to a folder (where you want the installation to be done), eg ‘my_jBilling’. Open the command prompt and navigate to the folder /path/my_jBilling/bin. Assign executable permissions to all the shell script files, with the command chmod +x *.sh. Also, remember to set the JAVA_HOME variable with your Java Home path. You can then start jBilling by running ./startup.sh. This completes the installation process – note that the process may slightly differ depending on the OS you use. As the startup.sh script executes, the command prompt shows five lines of logs indicating successful start. You can then access jBilling via your browser at http://localhost:8080/jbilling and login with credentials admin/123qwe. You can also access http://localhost:8080/jbilling/signup to create your new signup.
Step 02 Customers
No one wants to add a customer’s detail to the system every single time an invoice is sent to them! It is generally a good idea to keep the details of your customer with you and that’s precisely what jBilling lets you do – simply click on the ‘Customer’ button on the main menu to go to the customer page. Here you can view all the details related to the customer – but before that, you need to add a customer. To do so, click on the ‘Add New’ button and then fill in all of the relevant details. Note that once you add a customer, a separate login for the customer is also created and they can then log in to your jBilling system and manage their account as well (to make payments, view invoices and so on). This may seem trivial for smaller organisations with a smaller number of customers, but if you have a huge customer base and would like customers to handle payments themselves, you will definitely like this feature.
Step 03 Products
Besides customers, the other important aspect of a business is what you sell – your products or services. Handling your products in jBilling is nice and straightforward. Simply click on the ‘Products’ button to go to the products page. To add a new product here, you must add product categories first – click on the ‘Add Category’ button to do that. After the category is created, select it to add new products to that particular category or view all the products within it. Once you have all your products listed in the system, you can use them to create orders, invoices and so on.
Step 04 Orders
Before serving your customer you need an order from them. jBilling lets you handle orders in a way that closely resembles real-world scenarios. Clicking on the ‘Orders’ link on the main menu will take you to the orders page where you can view a list of all the orders received up to now. At this point you may be puzzled; unlike other pages there is no button to create an order here. To create an order you must first navigate to the particular customer you plan to create it for (in the customer page) and then click the ‘Create Order’ button (located below the customer details). This arrangement makes sure that there is tight coupling between an order and related customer. Once the order is created you can see it in the Order page. You can then edit orders to add products or create invoices out of it.
Step 05 Invoices
We have tight coupling with customers and orders, so it makes sense that invoices in jBilling should be related to an order too. So, to create an invoice you need to go to the order for which you are raising the invoice and click the ‘Generate Invoice’ button. The invoice is then created – note that you can even apply other orders to an invoice (if it hasn’t been paid). Also, an order can’t be used to generate an invoice if an earlier invoice (related to it) has already been paid. Having generated the invoice, you can send it via email or download it as a PDF. You may find that you want to change the invoice logo – but we’ll get to configuration and customisation later on. We will also see in later steps about how the payments related to an invoice can also be tracked.

Invoices
Invoices

Step 06 Billing
Billing is the feature that helps you automate the whole process of invoicing and payments. It can come in handy for businesses with a subscription model or other cases where customers are charged in a recurring manner. To set the billing process, you need to go the Configuration page first. Once you are on the page, click on ‘Billing Process’ on the left-hand menu bar to set the date and other parameters. With the parameters set, billing process runs automatically and shows a representation of the invoices. This output (invoices) needs to be approved by the admin – only once this has happened can the real invoices get generated and delivered to the customer. The customers (whose payments are not automatic) can then pay their bills with their own logins.
Step 07 Payments
Any payment made for an invoice is tracked on the Payments page, where you can view a list of all the payments already taken care of. To create a new payment, you need to select the customer (for whom payment is being made) on the Customer page and then click the ‘Make Payment’ button at the very bottom (next to the ‘Create Order’ button). This takes you to a page with details of all the paid/unpaid invoices (raised for that customer). Just select the relevant invoice and fill up the details of payment method to complete the payment process. Later, if there is a need to edit the payment details, you need to unlink the invoice before editing the details.
Step 08 Partners
Partners – for example, any affiliate marketing partners for an eCommerce website – are people or organisations that help your business grow. They are generally paid a mutually agreed percentage of the revenue they bring in. jBilling helps you manage partners in a easy, automated way. Click on the Partners link on the homepage to reach the Partners page and set about adding a new partner. Here you will need to fill in the details related to percentage rate, referral fee, payout date and period and so on. Now whenever a new customer is added (with the Partner ID field filled in) the relevant partner gets entitled to the commission percentage (as set during adding the partner) and the jBilling system keeps a track of the partner’s due payment. Note that, as with customers, partners also get their own login once you add their details to jBilling. It is up to you to give them the login access, though.
Step 09 Reports
The reporting engine of jBilling lets you have a bird’s-eye view of what’s going on with your company’s accounts. Click on the Reports link on the main menu; here there are four report types available – invoice, order, payment and customer. You can select one to reveal the different reports available inside that type. After a report is selected, you can see a brief summary of what the report is supposed to show. Set the end date and then click on the ‘Run Report’ button to run the report. Having done this, the system shows you the output. You can also change the output format to PDF, Excel or HTML.

Reports
Reports

Step 10 Configuration
The configuration page lets you fine-tune your jBilling installation settings. Click on the Configuration link and you will see a list of settings available on the left menu bar. The links are somewhat self-explanatory but we’ll run through the more useful ones. The Billing Process link allows you to set the billing run parameters. You can change the invoice logo using the Invoice Display setting. To add new users, simply click on the ‘Users’ link. To set the default currency or add a new currency to the system, click on the ‘Currencies’ link. You can even blacklist customers under the ‘Blacklist’ link. You will find many more settings to customise jBilling as per your tastes and requirements – just keep exploring and make jBilling work for you.



Suppose you want to sniff live HTTP web traffic (i.e., HTTP requests and responses) on the wire for some reason. For example, you may be testing experimental features of a web server. Or you may be debugging a web application or a RESTful service. Or you may be trying to troubleshoot PAC (proxy auto config) or check for any malware files surreptitiously downloaded from a website. Whatever the reason is, there are cases where HTTP traffic sniffing is helpful, for system admins, developers, or even end users.
While packet sniffing tools such as tcpdump are popularly used for live packet dump, you need to set up proper filtering to capture HTTP traffic, and even then, their raw output typically cannot be interpreted on the HTTP protocol level so easily. Real-time web server log parsers such as ngxtop provide human-readable real-time web traffic traces, but only applicable with a full access to live web server logs.
What will be nice is to have tcpdump-like traffic sniffing tool, but targeting HTTP traffic only. In fact, httpry is extactly that: HTTP packet sniffing toolhttpry captures live HTTP packets on the wire, and displays their content at the HTTP protocol level in a human-readable format. In this tutorial, let's see how we can sniff HTTP traffic with httpry.

Install httpry on Linux

On Debian-based systems (Ubuntu or Linux Mint), httpry is not available in base repositories. So build it from the source:
$ sudo apt-get install gcc make git libpcap0.8-dev
$ git clone https://github.com/jbittel/httpry.git
$ cd httpry
$ make
$ sudo make install
On Fedora, CentOS or RHEL, you can install httpry with yum as follows. On CentOS/RHEL, enable EPEL repo before running yum.
$ sudo yum install httpry
If you still want to build httpry from the source, you can easily do that by:
$ sudo yum install gcc make git libpcap-devel
$ git clone https://github.com/jbittel/httpry.git
$ cd httpry
$ make
$ sudo make install

Basic Usage of httpry

The basic use case of httpry is as follows.
$ sudo httpry -i
httpry then listens on a specified network interface, and displays captured HTTP requests/responses in real time.
In most cases, however, you will be swamped with the fast scrolling output as packets are coming in and out. So you want to save captured HTTP packets for offline analysis. For that, use either '-b' or '-o' options. The '-b' option allows you to save raw HTTP packets into a binary file as is, which then can be replayed with httpry later. On the other hand, '-o' option saves human-readable output of httpry into a text file.
To save raw HTTP packets into a binary file:
$ sudo httpry -i eth0 -b output.dump
To replay saved HTTP packets:
$ httpry -r output.dump
Note that when you read a dump file with '-r' option, you don't need root privilege.
To save httpr's output to a text file:
$ sudo httpry -i eth0 -o output.txt

Advanced Usage of httpry

If you want to monitor only specific HTTP methods (e.g., GET, POST, PUT, HEAD, CONNECT, etc), use '-m' option:
$ sudo httpry -i eth0 -m get,head
If you downloaded httpry's source code, you will notice that the source code comes with a collection of Perl scripts which aid in analyzing httpry's output. These scripts are found in httpry/scripts/plugins directory. If you want to write a custom parser for httpry's output, these scripts can be good examples to start from. Some of their capabilities are:
  • hostnames: Displays a list of unique host names with counts.
  • find_proxies: Detect web proxies.
  • search_terms: Find and count search terms entered in search services.
  • content_analysis: Find URIs which contain specific keywords.
  • xml_output: Convert output into XML format.
  • log_summary: Generate a summary of log.
  • db_dump: Dump log file data into a database.
Before using these scripts, first run httpry with '-o' option for some time. Once you obtained the output file, run the scripts on it at once by using this command:
$ cd httpry/scripts
$ perl parse_log.pl -d ./plugins
You may encounter warnings with several plugins. For example, db_dump plugin may fail if you haven't set up a MySQL database with DBI interface. If a plugin fails to initialize, it will automatically be disabled. So you can ignore those warnings.
After parse_log.pl is completed, you will see a number of analysis results (*.txt/xml) in httpry/scripts directory. For example, log_summary.txt looks like the following.
To conclude, httpry can be a life saver if you are in a situation where you need to interpret live HTTP packets. That might not be so common for average Linux users, but it never hurts to be prepared.


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